The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. As one participant put it, “poor methods get results”. The Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Research Council, and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council have now put their reputational weight behind an investigation into these questionable research practices. The apparent endemicity of bad research behaviour is alarming. In their quest for telling a compelling story, scientists too often sculpt data to fit their preferred theory of the world. Or they retrofit hypotheses to fit their data. Journal editors deserve their fair share of criticism too. We aid and abet the worst behaviours. Our acquiescence to the impact factor fuels an unhealthy competition to win a place in a select few journals. Our love of “significance” pollutes the literature with many a statistical fairy-tale. We reject important confirmations. Journals are not the only miscreants. Universities are in a perpetual struggle for money and talent, endpoints that foster reductive metrics, such as high-impact publication. National assessment procedures, such as the Research Excellence Framework, incentivise bad practices. And individual scientists, including their most senior leaders, do little to alter a research culture that occasionally veers close to misconduct.
There are approximately 200,000 ophthalmologists in the world, about 20,000 of whom serve in the United States.
Source: International Council of Ophthalmology
Forty eight percent of eye injuries occur in people 18-45 years of age. Seventy three percent of eye injuries occur in males. Forty four percent of eye injuries occur in the home. Among children ages 5-14 years, the most common setting for eye injuries is sports.
Source: US Eye Injury Registry Summary Report
Nearly 26 million Americans have diabetes. About 7 million Americans do not know they have diabetes. Diabetic eye disease affects more than 4.4 million Americans.
Cataract affects nearly 22 million Americans age 40 and older. By age 80, more than half of Americans have cataract.